When you draw a perfect circle, the elementary step is to choose a particular point which will serve as the origin of the circle. You place the tip of your compass on that point and rotate it so that an outline is drawn on the surrounding of that origin. The perfect round shape is drawn, which is known as the circle. While you are drawing a circle, you have to make sure that the tip of the compass does not deviate from the particular point which is serving as the origin. If the tip of your compass slides from the origin even by a fraction, your perfect circle is ruined. You may get a sphere shape but it won’t be a circle.
Since the earth is round, it too has a point of origin; which lies at the center of the earth. This is of course an imaginary point or line, which is known as “hypocenter”. The center of the earth is filled with molten Magma. It is an extremely hot liquid. As we know that the earth has many layers, the outer layers are known as the plates. These plate actually serve as the paltry (base) of these mountains or buildings or bridges etc. the magma liquid produces some kind of current, which is passing through the different layers of earth and then reaches the plates. A movement occurs within the plates by the passage of this current and due to this movement the base is shaken resulting in a disaster.
The countries which are on the high areas, near a big ocean or which have a volcano present in them are technically most prone to the earthquakes. Because the volcano is also filled with magma, when the pressure in the volcano is unbalanced, the pressure disturbs the movement of the plates. There disturbance in the oceans is cause of tsunami. The first earthquake in the recorded history came in china in 1177BC; this earthquake is myth in the Greek history. The earthquake which has a magnitude equal to larger than 5.0 has a shaking capability. The countries most prone to the earthquake are:
10. SOLOMON ISLANDS:
Solomon Islands consist of nearly one thousand islands. The place is positioned in the north west of Australia. This state is very prone to the earthquakes as it is situated in the vicinity of Pacific Ocean. This place has witnessed many earthquakes now; the citizens there are so much used to these quakes that they hardly pay any attention to minor earthquakes of magnitude of 5.0 to 6.4. 14 earthquakes of magnitude greater than 6.5 have taken event in this state. Among them three were of magnitude 8.0 and above; which causes of serious damage. The first earthquake of magnitude 8.0 was witnessed in the year 1971, July 14th; which generated the tsunami in Rabaul (A town in New Britain). Followed by another earth quake of magnitude 8.1 on 26th of the same month, which generated another tsunami was which also witnesses in New Britain. This series was the most severe earthquake experienced in that vicinity in the last 50 years. The third biggest earth quake was witnessed in the year 2007, 1st of April; having a magnitude 8.1. 52 people lost their lives in this disaster and 900 unfortunate lost their homes.
Mexico is the 13th largest state which is blessed with independence. Also it has a very strong economy. Mexico is positioned with the Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea in the world map making it very prone the earthquakes. The first earthquake was witnessed on 21st April 1776, followed by another earth quake on 28th march 1787, and then by another one on 8th march 1800. These three earthquakes were the most severe in the history of Mexico; all three of them having a magnitude of 8.6 to 8.7. Mexico has witnessed 51 earthquakes from the starting of 19th century to the year 2003, with 6n the range of magnitude 7.0 to 8.3. The country has witness 8 earthquakes since 2009, having a magnitude of 6.2 to 7.4. The last one was witnessed on 20th march 2012 of magnitude 7.4.
8. PAPUA NEW GUINEA:
Papua New Guinea is located along with the Pacific Ocean and for this reason this state is also very much prone to earthquakes. Although the majority of the citizens are the inhabitants of the rural areas, its economy is growing very rapidly. This country has substantiated 29 earthquakes since 1998; out of which 6 were seen in the year 2011. Among all these earthquakes, 5 were of high impact; one each in the year 2002 and 2005 of magnitude 7.6 and 7.8, rest of the three were received in the year 2000. There was a series of earthquake in year 2000, two were received on the very same day (16 November 2000) of magnitude 8.0 and 7.8 and the third on the next day (17th November 2000) of magnitude 7.6. The latest quake was received on 28th July 2012 which was on magnitude 6.6.
Chile, an unfortunate land located between the Pacific Ocean and the Andes Mountain is very prone to the earthquakes. Not only the oceans but the volcanoes and the islands present in the state are also an omen of bad luck for the citizens as they attract earthquakes. Despite all these threats Chile is a very stationary and is flourishing. Chile has had 15 earthquakes in period from 1730 to 1985; having a magnitude if 7.4 to 9.5. The earthquake with the highest magnitude was recorded in the year 1960 in Chile, which was of magnitude 9.5; this quake was responsible for thousands of deaths. In 1992 another quake hit the city, of magnitude 8.5. Almost 10 earthquakes have hit the country since 1998; the latest was observed on 27th February 2010 of magnitude 8.8, above 52 people died in that disaster.
This state is actually an archipelago spread on the southern portion of the Pacific Ocean. This place is merger 0f 176 islands and enjoys the neighborhood of Hawaii; which is an eminent vacation spot as well as of New Zealand. Tonga has had 215 earthquakes in since the last year but none of them could exceed the magnitude 6.6. the last shocking quake was witnessed in 2009 which was of the magnitude 7.6; there was damage done to the lives and the property. This volcano was triggered by the volcanic eruption which undersea near Hunga Tonga. Another earthquake was received in the year 2006 of magnitude 7.9 – 8.0 followed by another in 2007 of magnitude 7.9.
Fiji is an island nation, situated at the south of the Pacific Ocean; New Zealand and Tonga are its neighbor. This country is among the oldest civilizations of the world. Fiji comprises of 322 big and 522 small island and the place is surrounded by many mountains; also the country is bestowed with 4 volcanoes. Only one earthquake has been recorded in Fiji up till now, which was of magnitude 7.3; on 9th November 2009 and caused no serious damage to life or property. This earthquake was produced by vibration produced under the Pacific Ocean. This state is seismically effective; being positioned along with the Pacific Ocean, the country is not only resupine to earthquake but also to cyclones and tsunami.
4. NEW ZEALAND:
New Zealand, is another country which enjoys the view of the Pacific Ocean; Australia and Tasman sea are its neighbors. New Zealand comprises of two large island and is blessed with mountains and volcanoes; also the country is situated in the high zone area, so blatantly the earthquakes are a threat to this country. Earthquakes are in such abundance in this area that earthquake has been a season for the inhabitants. The first quake was recorded in the year 1100 which was of the magnitude 7.6 – 8.3, another quake was received in the year 1460 followed by another in 1610; both were of the same magnitude as the first one. The country has witnessed more than 35 earthquakes since then all having magnitude greater than 7.0 and has received plenty of quakes having a magnitude 5.0 to 6.8. the last received was on 3rd July 2012 of magnitude 7.1
3. THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA:
America is located on the western hemisphere, surrounded by a long string of mountains. The land of America is among the oldest civilization of the world. This land collides with both the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. The state is blessed with many large rivers. The history of America is bestowed with almost 65 earthquakes since 1700. The first serious earthquake was felt in California on January 26th 1700 of a magnitude 8.7-9.2, followed by another one in Hawaii in 1868 of magnitude 7.9 and then another in year 1857 at California of the same range as Hawaii. Alaska has went through 5 severe catastrophes ranging from magnitude 8.3 to 9.2. The last disaster was seen in California 1994 raising the death toll to 33.
Indonesia is an Asian country, situated along pacific ocean. It is also comprised of many islands. This archipelago has minimum 150 volcanoes. Indonesian land has received 165 earthquakes since 1797. The first disaster witnessed by this state was in the 18th century (1797) of magnitude 8.4. the second was in the 19th century in the year 1833 of the magnitude 8.8-9.2 followed by another in 1861 (magnitude 8.5). Another severe earthquake was triggered in the year 1965 of range 8.2 magnitude. Indonesia (Sumatra-Andaman Islands) went through a fiasco when another earthquake of magnitude 9.1-9.3. The two recent earthquakes were felt in November 2012, of magnitude 8.6 and 8.2
Japan is the most prone country to the earthquakes because its surrounded by the Sea of japan, Pacific Ocean, East China Sea, sea of Okhotsk. Japan is composed of 6,852 islands. Majority of the Japanese land is spread over mountains and forests; also volcanoes in that land are a threat to the civilization. The primary earthquake was felt in November 684 of magnitude 8.4, followed by two other hits in 745 A.D and 869 A.D of magnitude 7.9 and 8.6. This archipelago has witnessed 24 earthquakes having a magnitude equal or greater than 7.9-8.0 and 42 earthquake of the range magnitude 6.3-7.8 have been received up till now. The highest magnitude was received in the year 2011 11th of March, the range was magnitude 9.0 which was responsible for the loss of more than 15thousand lives. The recent vibration was felt on 7th December 2012 of magnitude 7.3.