The human mind has crossed all the limits. The genius we see today has proved that intelligence knows no bounds. All across the globe we see creations that leave us speechless . From the still recalled ancient wonders of the world to the giant sky scarpers ; men has always come up with designs and magnitudes that are simply unbelievable. We all are fascinated with the seven wonders of the world because they crossed all the barriers to excellence and even after hundreds of years still stand up magnificently In my bid to find out the top 10 man made marvels I have included only 3 of the wonders of the world considering the size and scale of their construction. The remaining seven are comparatively modern engineering marvels that have impressed the present world. The following are the top 10 man made marvels for you.
10. Bird’s nest (Beijing).
The 2008 Olympics was held in China. In order to keep up with the glory of the event the Chinese government decided to build a stadium that will host the Olympics . All the leading architects participated and the Bird’d nest model by Li Xingxang was accepted by the expert’s panel as well as the people and became the official design in April 2003 . The construction was started in December 2003 and required a total of 17000 workers. The entire structure uses steel and is the biggest steel structure in the world. The steel casing that uses random steel beams forms the outer covering whereas there is the sitting area build in concrete on the inside. Each beam weighs around a thousand tons and all the steel required was manufactured in China itself . Today it has a siting capacity of more than 80000 people. The stadium has a rain water collecting system which is then on purification used for the stadium . The ground pipes do the work of keeping up with the temperature around providing heat in winter and cold in summer. The entire structure costs around 230 million American dollars. The ground was opened on 28th June 2008. It is now the National stadium and has hosted many events since then.
9. Channel tunnel (UK and France).
Are you wondering what is a tunnel doing in man made marvels? If so then may be it will if i tell you that this is the longest under sea railway tunnel . No kidding. This tunnel connects the the northern France near Calais to the Kent in UK covering a total distance of 50.5 kilo meters It runs below the English channel and hence the name “Channel tunnel” . Although there is a longer tunnel in Japan (Seikan tunnel) and even running deeper then this (790 feet ) into the sea but this tunnel has the longest under sea portion. Out of the 50.5 km ; 37.9 km is under the sea with 290 feet deep in the deepest area. Building a tunnel as it is a difficult task but building it under a sea is a mighty task. The high speed Euro star runs in the tunnel and also the Euro shuttle vehicle transport service. The tunnel cost 4650 million which was 80% more than predicted. The construction began in 1988 and finished in 1994. Workers from both the country were involved. The tunnel supports 2 rail routes and 1 service route.
8. Brij – Al – Arab (Dubai).
Brij al arab is a luxury hotel undisputed in its field. The name literally mean “the tower of the Arabs” . It stands on an artificial island at a height of about 321 feet and it is the fourth highest hotel in the world. The hotel building looks like a sail of a ship which became the symbol of Dubai just as the Sheikh has desired. The hotel was built with the intention of bringing tourism to the country. It was inaugurated on the advent of new millennium The hotel designed was by Tom Wrights and built by Rick Gregory both of WS Atkins. Various challenges were overcome by the engineers during the construction. The hotel stands 290 feet of shore into the sea and 321 feet high. It took 3 years to build the base which also had to be protected by the powerful force of the sea. A honeycomb structure was used. The hotel stands 180 feet high and is stable to the mighty Dubai winds. The rooms are luxurious and have every possible facility. There is a helipad on the roof which serves as a tennis court otherwise. There is also a hanging hotel which extends out from the main building. It is currently one of the 15 most expensive hotels in the world
7. Akashi – Kaikyo bridge (Japan).
It is also by the name Pearl bridge and is the longest suspension bridge in the world. Its total span is 3991 meters overall. It links the Kobe city in Honshu to the Awaji island city Iwaya across the Akashi strait. Until the ridge passengers use to take ferries to travel between these 2 cities. But due to associated dangers with ferries in storms the construction of a bridge was planned. In the year 1988 in May the construction was started of a road route having 6 lanes. It was opened to he people in 1998 . The bridge can withstand hostile water currents and earthquakes of intensity 8.2. The even have pendulums to dampens the destructive forces. It cost around 500 billion yen and is repaid by the people by paying a toll of 2300 yen . More than 23000 cars use this bridge each day. The worth is said to be re payed in 25 years .
6. Millau Viaduct bridge (France).
This is a suspension bridge near Millau that lies in southern France. At the time of holidays the initial route between France and Spain used to get clogged with traffic and hence construction of a bridge to span the distance was decided. This was designed by Norman Foster a British architect and Michel Virlogeux a French engineer. it is the tallest bridge in the world rising 1125 feet above its base. It was open to the public on 16th December 2004. It costs around 400 million euros. The bridge was awarded the best structural award by IABSE in 2006.
5. Palm Jumeirah ( Dubai).
Palm Jumeirah is one of the three palm islands designed by the Dubai designer Nakheel and company. This island is smallest of the three . When financial crises hit Dubai the construction of the next 2 palm islands was placed on hold. Hence Palm Jumeirah is the only completed island. This artificial island gets its name from the Jumeirah coastal region from which it extends into the Persian gulf. The construction initiated in 2001 and was completed in 2006. It required 7 million tons rocks and around a 100 million cubic meters of sand. In 2007 it was declared the world’s largest artificial island.
4. Brij Al Khalifa (Dubai).
Brij Al Khalifa is prominently remembered as the world’s tallest structure ever built by mankind. On halfway its construction it was declared the tallest skyscraper in the world. It was planned by the Sheikh to give Dubai an identity apart from being the oiling giant. It was to give Dubai an international recognition. The construction began in 2004 in September and the building was out in market in January 2010. It stands tall at 829 feet tall . It has 900 apartments in all. and hods various records from world’s highest restaurant to fastest elevator and others.
3. Great wall of China.
The great wall of China is currently one of the wonders of the world. It is a linkage of various walls build in different times and then joined to form a giant wall collectively called as the great wall. The oldest portions are from 7th century B.C. The building material is consisting f bricks , stone , wood , damped earth etc. The wall has been fortified again and again the most being done in Ming Dynasty. The purpose of the wall was protecting the regions from enemies . It also served as a transportation route and controlled movement from in and out of the region. The wall extends from the Shanhaiguan to lop lake. An archaeological survey found that the wall and its branches in totality measure around 21,196 km. Although rumored to be visible from moon it is never witnessed by any astronaut ever so far even from low orbiting shuttles.
2. City of Petra (Jordan).
Petra literally means stone in Arabic. It is a city cut out of stones. The origin dates as back as the 312 B.C. It was the capital of Nabataeans ; an ancient civilization. The city lies on mount Hor on its slope and is surrounded by various valleys. Due to this the city remained hidden until 1812 and was discovered by Johann Ludwig Burckhardt who is a Swiss explorer. It was introduced in the UNESCO’s world heritage sights in 1985. The city was the Nabataeans Trade center and controlled routes to various trade capitals at that time . It has everything from a theater to monastery. It even had a perennial water system. The city termed as Red rose city attracts thousands of tourists every year.
1. The great pyramid (Giza).
This is the only monument from the ancient wonders that exists even today. The great pyramid of Giza was not included in the list of monuments for the selection of new 7 wonders of the world. It was kept out of the list because it did not need any confirmation from any expert regarding its grandeur It was declared the king of wonders. The pyramid of Giza is said to be the tomb of Khufu an Egyptian Pharaoh of fourth dynasty. It is said it took around 20 years to complete its construction. Today its height is around 136 meters and was the tallest man made structure for some 3800 years. No matter what amount of research goes into it the construction of pyramid and its accuracy and its astronomical synchrony remain unanswerable. Even with today’s technology building such a monument that surpasses every force of nature and stands intact after thousands of years is impossible.